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Santiago was left unprotected. Many migrants arrived in Santiago with nothing and thousands had to survive on the streets due to the great difficulty in finding a place they could rent. At this time, the aristocracy lost much of its power and the middle class, composed of merchants, bureaucrats and professionals, acquired the role of setting national policy.

Although some institutions, such as the National Institute and the National Librarywere installed in the Patria Viejathey were closed after the patriot defeat at the Battle of Rancagua in The royal government lasted untilwhen the Army of the Andes secured victory in battle of Chacabucoreinstating the patriot government in Santiago. In this context, Santiago began to develop a substantial middle- and lower-class population, while the upper classes sought refuge in the districts of the capital.

The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and slowly began to interact with the picunches natives who inhabited the area. Under construction at the time, the station would be opened permanently in Women prepare soup kitchens in Relative growth of Santiago, by communes [5] The park, open to the public, became a landmark in Santiago due to its large gardens, lakes, and carriage trails.

At the same time, the International Exposition was held in the grounds of the Quinta Normal. However these disasters would not stop the growth of the capital of the Captaincy General of Chile at a time when all the power of the country was centered on the Plaza de Armas santiaguina. Both of these constructions consisted of mainly adobe and stone. Valdivia later summoned the chiefs of the area to a parliament, where he explained his intention to found a city on behalf of the king Carlos I of Spainwhich would be the capital of his governorship of Nueva Extremadura.

Modernity expanded in the city, with the appearance of the first theaters, the extension of the telephone network and the opening of the Airport Los Cerrillos inamong other advances. However, this growth was experienced on the outskirts and not in the town itself. Thus, the old moneyed class trips to Cousino and Alameda Park, lost hegemony over popular entertainment venues such as the National Stadium emerged in The Great Depression caused the collapse of the nitrate industry in the north, leaving 60, unemployed, which added to the decline in agricultural exports, resulting in a total number for the unemployed to be aboutnationwide.

In face of this barbaric act, the natives dispersed in terror. On 11 Septemberthe city was destroyed by the natives, but the 55 Spanish Garrison managed to defend the fort. This establishment reaffirmed the city's role as capital.

Unemployment and living costs increased dramatically whilst the salaries of the population of Santiago fell. The Incas settled in the valley of mitimaesthe main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strengths as Huaca de Chena and the sanctuary of El Casino chile santiago hill.

The area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail. The San Cristobal Hill in this period began a long process of development.

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The enactment of the Autonomous Municipalities' act allowed municipalities to create various administrative divisions around the then Santiago departamento, with the aim of improving local ruling. About the yearthe first sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of agricultural communities along the Mapocho Rivermainly maizepotatoes and beansand the domestication of camelids in the area.

During this time, the downtown district was consolidated into a commercial, financial and administrative center, with the establishment of various portals and locales around Casino chile santiago Street and a Civic District in the immediate surroundings of the Palace of La Moneda. Of the blocks designed by Gamboa inforty were occupied, and inthe first major buildings in the city began to rise, the start of construction highlighted with the placing of the foundation stone of the first Cathedral in and the building of the church of San Francisco in The feeling that the early 20th century was an era of economic growth due to technological advances contrasted dramatically with the casino chile santiago of living of lower social classes.

However, the shrine would not be completed until some decades later. Furthermore, in the periphery villas were built various partners from various organizations of the time. Inthe census reportedinhabitants.

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Each solar quarter block was given to the settlers, who built houses of mud and straw. This represented an increase of The Calicanto bridge over the Mapocho river was the main symbol of the city of Santiago after its inauguration in The situation would change only several years later with a new industrial boom fostered by CORFO and the expansion of the state apparatus from the late s.

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At the Mapocho river's southern side, the Parque Forestal was created and new buildings such as the Museum of Fine Artsthe Barros Arana public boarding school and the National Library were opened. The latter project involved the construction of various modernist buildings for the establishment of the offices of ministries and other public services, as well as commencing the construction of medium-rise buildings.

A new redevelopment of the Alameda Avenue turned it into the main road of the city. The indigenous hosts of Michimalonco used this to their advantage, and attacked the fledgling city. When she realized they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all native prisoners, and proceeded to put their heads on pikes and also threw a few heads to the natives.

La Alameda, Santiago in With the end of the war, Bernardo O'Higgins was accepted as Supreme Director and, like his father, began a number of important works for the city. Created primarily for educational use, they also became examples of public planning during that period. This significant increase was the result of suburban growth to the south and west of the capital, and in part to La Chimba, a vibrant district growing from the division of old properties that existed in the area.

In addition to construction of important buildings, the city began to develop as nearby lands welcomed tens of thousands of livestock. Colonial Santiago[ edit ] Map of Santiago at the beginning of the colonial 18th century. During the call Patria Nuevaclosed institutions reopened. Also during this time and with the work of European landscapers inO'Higgins Park came into existence.

This growth was mainly due to the arrival of farmers from the south who came to work in factories and railroads which were under construction. In the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayoraround which various plots casino in jasper ga the Cathedral and the governor 's house were selected.

Population explosion[ edit ] View of Ahumadain the city center, in the late s.

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Widespread disease, including tuberculosis, claimed the lives of hundreds of the homeless. Founding of the city[ edit ] founding of Santiago. The villages established in the areas belonging to picunches groups name given by Chileans or promaucaes name given by Incaswere subject to the Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century and into the early sixteenth century.

Independence, however, was not assured. These two events, however, did not prevent the city's rapid, continued growth. A series of disasters impeded the development of the city during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: These important works were opened permanently in Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboawho would design the city grid layout.

Inthe city reported 46, inhabitants, while inthe population reached 69, The groups were mainly nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt.